SOILS OF INDIA
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1. Alluvial Soil
- Formed by deposition of sediments by rivers.
- Rich in Humus and fertile
- Found in Great Northern Plain, Northern Gujarat, Lower valleys of Narmada and Tapti
- Soils renewed every year.
2. Black Soils
- Made up of lava and volcanic rocks.
- Concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract covering Chattisgarh, Parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
- Contains lime, iron, magnesium and potash
- Lacks phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter
3. Red Soils
- Formed due to weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau
- Red colour is due to iron composition
- Yellow or Brown if iron content is low.
- Found in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa
4. Mountain Soils
- Formed as a result of accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth.
- Largely found in Himalayan region or other high altitude regions
- Tea is grown in those areas since these regions receive sufficient rainfall.
5. Laterite Soils
- Soils formed due to intense leaching on the summits of hills and uplands.
- Commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
6. Desert Soils
- Soil not well developed.
- High salt content, saline layer forms a hard crust
- Sandy and organic matter absent.
- Desert regions of Rajasthan.
7. Saline and Alkaline soils
- Forms due to little more rainfall in desert soil regions
- Shows white incrustation of salts of calcium, sodium and magnesium.
- Infertile and poor in drainage
8. Forest and Hill Soils
- Found at lower as well as at higher elevations, where rain fall is sufficient.
- Soil is shallow, steep, stony and infertile for crop production.
- Good for Timber and other trees which provide fuel.
9. Peaty and Marshy Soils
- Mostly found in Kerala, Sunderbans of West Bengal, Coastal regions of Orissa.
- Vegetation growing in wet places dies, its slow decomposition over hundreds of years form layers of marshy and peaty soils.
- Black coloured, acidic soil and fertile for paddy/rice crops.