French Colony India, Anglo-French Rivalry - Three Carnatic Wars
French Colony Establishments In India
① Francois Caron established the first French factory in India at Surat in 1667.
② The biggest settlement of French in India was Pondicherry, which was established by Francois Martin in 1674.
③ The title of Nawab was conferred to French Governor Dumas in 1740 by Chanda Sahib because he safeguarded him from Maratha attack.
④ Joseph Francis Dupleix was the greatest French Governor in India.
⑤ The victorious French Army was led by Captain Paradise in the battle of Saint Thome.
⑥ The battle of Saint Thome is vividly described in a book titled as "Private Diary" written by Anand Ranga Pillai.
⑦ The French Governor Dupleix was succeeded by Godeheu.
⑧ French commander Bussy was taken as a prisoner in the battle of Wandiwash. The battle of Wandiwash sealed the fate of the French fortunes in India.
① The war between East India Company and French Company continued for 20 years. The rivalry began with the outbreak of Austrian war of success.
② In India Carnatic was the venue of struggle.
③ The First Carnatic War broke out in 1746-1748.
⑴ In 1946, the English Navy(led by Bennet) captured few French ships.
⑵ In response to that, the French Governor, Dupleix, invaded Madras colony.
⑶ Battle of St. Thome (on the banks of river Adiyar) was fought between the two companies. The French emerged as winners.
⑷ The treaty of AIX-LA Chapelle (1948) put an end to the Austrian was as well as concluded the first Carnatic war.
⑸ Madras was handed back to the English.
④ The Second Carnatic War took place from 1749 to 1754.
⑴ Dupleix supported Muzaffar Jung (Subedar of Deccan) and Chanda Sahib (Nawab of Carnatic) while Robert Clive (British) decided to support the rival party i.e. Nasir Jung for the succession of Hyderabad.
⑵ Muzaffar Jung andChanda Sahib with the help of the French emerged winners. The position of Dupleix was very strong at that time.
⑶ In 1751, Rober Clive captured Arcot (capital of Carnatic). Later the British army also captured Trichonopoly. This led to the 2nd war of Carnatic.
⑷ Treaty of Pondicherry was signed in 1755 which ended the conflict.
⑸ Though the French were able to retain Hyderabad but their position in Deccan got weakened.
⑹ Dupleix was replaced by Godheu.
⑤ The Third Carnatic War (1758-63)
⑴ In 1756, the seven years war in Europe led this third conflict in the India subcontinent.
⑵ In the war of Wandiwash (1760), the French were defeated. In this battle, the English army was led by Eir Eyre Coote. The British captured Pondicherry.
⑶ The Paris Treaty (1763) put an end to this conflict. Pondicherry and other settlements French were returned.
⑷ It led to the end of French power in India.