History Notes -1
European Traders to India (Before 1857)
1. Prince Henry of Portugal encouraged voyages for the discovery of India by sea route. Vasco da Gama started his voyage from Lisbon in 1947. He landed at Calicu on May 21, 1487. He reached Malabar coast.
2. The Portuguese allied themselves with the rulers of Honavar, Bankipur and Bhatkal against Bijapur.
3. Cochin was the best of all ports on the Malabar Coast.
4. The trade was carried onto with China Arabia and other countries from the port of Quilon.
5. Portugal's initial objective was to capture the spice trade of the East.
6. Cabral another Portuguese trader, seized an Arab vessel and presented it to Zamorin.
7. Francisco de Almeida was the first Portugues governor. He built fortresses at Cochin, Cannanore, Kilwa and Anjadiva The Dutch expelled the Portuguese from Sri Lanka 1638 to 1658.
8. Alfonso De Albuquerque can be called the real founder of the Portuguese empire in India. He conquered Goa from Adil Shahi Sultan of Bijapur in Feburary 1510.
9. The Dutch occupied cape of good hope in 1652.
10. Portuguese brought the following to the Indian continent:
- Cultivation of Tobacco
- First printing press in India (1556)
- Cultivation of Potato
- First Scientific work on Indian medicinal plants.
11. Goa was made the seat of bishop in 1538.
12. The fanatic religious policy of the Portuguese was responsible for their rapid downfall.
13. The Portuguese were responsible of crippling the Indian Navy for their benefits.
14. Bartholomia Diaz accompanied Cabral to India.
15. Christopher Columbus started his voyage in 1494 to explore the route to India.
16. Dutch occupied Mallacca in 1641.
17. Pulicat and Negapatnam were the seats of Dutch government. Their first permanent factory was setup at Masaulipatnam (1605).
18. In Bengal the first Dutch factory was setup at Pipli.
19. The Dutch conquered Java Islands in 1619 AD.
20. Rise of English Naval power was one of the main reason for the decline of Dutch in Indian continent.
21. The Englishman were brutally massacred by the Dutch in Battle of Amboyna 1623.
22. Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to East India company to trade in India for the period of 15 years on Dec 31, 1600.
23. William Hawkins presented Jahangir with a letter from James I and stayed at his court 1608 to 1611.
24. Thomas Roe obtained the right to trade in Gujarat for East India Company.
25. Captain Middleton got permission for the first time to trade at Surat (1611).
26. Madras was founded by the English in 1639.
27. The chief of the factory at Golconda was also the company's agent in the court of Qutub Shahi rulers.
28. The chief articles of import to the Coromandel coast were spices, sandalwood and pepper.
29. Farukkshyar in 1715 gave three farmans to the English East India Company to trade in Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad.
30. In 1667 the first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron.
31. Francois was the first French Director General in India. He obtained the rights for Pondicherry from Sher Khan Lodhi.
32. The French traders lost the battle of Condor to the English traders. It led to the decline of French powers in Southern India.