Friday, 9 April 2021

General Science - Biology Notes (Part 1) - Studies in Biology (#generalscience)(#biology)(#compete4exams)(#ssc)(#eduvictors)

General Science - Biology Notes (Part 1) - Studies in Biology

General Science - Biology Notes (Part 1) - Studies in Biology (#generalscience)(#biology)(#compete4exams)(#ssc)(#eduvictors)


Biology- Biology is often called the science of life in studies that include everything from an organism’s conception to its death. It is mainly concerned with the study of living systems.


French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck (1744–1829) is credited with coining the term “biology” (from the Greek terms bios, meaning “life,” and logy, meaning “study of”) in 1802.


Various Studies/Terms of biology:

• Botany - study of different aspects of plants. Theophrastus is known as father of Botany.

• Zoology - study of various aspects of animals. Aristotle is called Father of Biology as well as Zoology.

• Anatomy- Study of internal structure of organism.

• Agrology – Soil science dealing specially with production of crop.

• Agronomy- Science of soil management and production of crop.

• Agrostology – Study if grass.

• Arthrology- Study of joins.

• Apiculture- rearing of honey bee for honey.

• Anthropology- Study of origin, development and relationship between the culture of past and present human.

• Anthology – Study of flower and flowering plant.

• Angiology- Study of blood vascular system including arteries and veins.

• Andrology- Study of male reproductive organ.

• Bryology- Study of bryophytes.

• Biochemistry - Study of compounds and chemical reactions that take place in living organisms.

• Biometrics – Statical study of biological problem.

• Biomedical engineering- Production and designing of spare part for man for overcoming various defects in man .e.g. artificial limbs, Iron lung, Pacemaker etc.

• Biophysicist—Study of living things that use the techniques and tools used in the field of physics.

• Biotechnology- Technology connected with living being for wilful manipulation on molecular level.

• Bacteriology- Study of bacteria.

• Cytology– Study of cell.

• Cryobiology – It is the study of effect of low temperature on organisms and their preservation.

• Clone – Clones are genetically identical individuals in a population.

• Cardiology – Study of heart.

• Demography- Study of population.

• Diffusion- Random movement of molecule / ion or gases from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration.

• Diffusion- Random movement of molecule / gas / ion from reign of higher concentration to lower concentration.

• Dermatology – Study of skin.

• Dendrochronology- Counting and analyzing annual growth rings of tree to know its age.

• Ecology – Study of inter- relationship between living and their environment.

• Evolution- Study of origin of life, variation and formation of new species.

• Embryology- It is the study of fertilization and development if zygote.

• Eugenics – Study of factors connected with the improvement of race.

• Euthenics – Treatment of defective in heredity through genetics engineering.

• Ethnology – Study of science dealing with different races of human.

• Ethology – Study of animal behavior.

• Etiology – Study of life cycle of pathogen.

• Entomology- Study of insects.

• Exobiology- Study of possibility of life in space.

• Floriculture- Cultivation of plant for their flower.

• Food technology-Scientific processing, preservation, Storage and transportation of food.

• Forensic science – Application of science for identification of various facts civilian.

• Fishery- catching, breeding, rearing and marketing of fishes.

• Forestry- Development and management of forest.

• Fermentation- process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the for nation of ethyl alcohol.

• Gastroenterology- Study of alimentary canal or stomach, intestine and their disease.

• Genetics- Study of variation and transmission of characters from parents to their young ones.

• Gerontology-Study of ageing.

• Gnotobiotics—Studies how organisms grow in a germ-free environment or studies organisms that grow in environments with certain specific germs.

• Growth – Permanent increase in the weight and volume or size of an organism.

• Gynecology- Study of female reproductive organ.

• Hypertonic- when two solution have differcut sdute concentration. The sol at ion which have higher concentration is called hypertonic.

• Hypotonic- in two solation which have lawer solute con centration is called hypotonic.

• Home thermic- Animals who have a constant body temperature are called home thermo cot warmblooded animal.

• Histology- Study of tissue with the help of microscope.

• Hydroponics- Study of growing plant without soil in water which contain nutrient.

• Haematology- Study of blood

• Hepatology- Study of liver.

• Ichthyology- Study of fishes.

• Immunology - Study of immunity or resistance of body to disease.

• Limnology - Study of organisms that live in freshwater areas.

• Marine biology - Study of life life in the ocean (usually specific organisms, such as squid or sharks). 

• Mammography – Brach of science which deal test of breast cancer.

• Metazoans- All multicellular animals are called metazoans.

• Monoecious- Plant which have both male and female flower.

• Morphology – Study of external structure.

• Microbiology- Study of Micro- Organism like virus bacteria algae fungi and protozoa.

• Molecualr biology- Study of molecule found in the body of living organism.

• Medicine- Study of treating disease by drug.

• Mycology – Study of fungi.

• Neurology – Study of nervous system.

• Neonatology- Study of new born.

• Nephrology- Study if kidneys.

• Osmosis- movement of water moledcule across semipermeable membrane from the region of its higher concentration to the region of lower communication.

• Odontology- Study of teeth and gum.

• Osteology- Study of bones.

• Oncology- Study of cancer and tumours.

• Obstetrics- Science connected with care of pregnant woman before, during and after child birth.

• Oology—Study of bird eggs, including the development of eggs from certain types of birds.

• Ornithology- Study of birds.

• Ophthalmology- Study of eyes.

• Orthopaedics- Diagnosis and repair of disorders of locomotery system.

• Phytoplanktons- Microscopic organism which passively float on the surface of water.

• Parasite- organism which depend on other living for their food and shelter.

• Poikilothermic- Organism which change their body temperature according to surrounding. These are also called cold blooded animal.

• Paleontology — Study of prehistoric life (also this is a field of geology.)

• Parasitology — Study of the life cycle of parasites.

• Taxonomy — Study of classification of organisms.

• Virology — Study of development of viruses and how they affect other organisms.


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