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1. Alluvial Soil

  • Formed by deposition of sediments by rivers.
  • Rich in Humus and fertile
  • Found in Great Northern Plain, Northern Gujarat, Lower valleys of Narmada and Tapti
  • Soils renewed every year.

2. Black Soils

  • Made up of lava and volcanic rocks.
  • Concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract covering Chattisgarh, Parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
  • Contains lime, iron, magnesium and potash
  • Lacks phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter

3. Red Soils

  • Formed due to weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau
  • Red colour is due to iron composition
  • Yellow or Brown if iron content is low.
  • Found in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa

4. Mountain Soils

  • Formed as a result of accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth.
  • Largely found in Himalayan region or other high altitude regions
  • Tea is grown in those areas since these regions receive sufficient rainfall.

5. Laterite Soils

  • Soils formed due to intense leaching on the summits of hills and uplands.
  • Commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.

6. Desert Soils

  • Soil not well developed. 
  • High salt content, saline layer forms a hard crust
  • Sandy and organic matter absent.
  • Desert regions of Rajasthan.

7. Saline and Alkaline soils

  • Forms due to little more rainfall in desert soil regions
  • Shows white incrustation of salts of calcium, sodium and magnesium.
  • Infertile and poor in drainage

8. Forest and Hill Soils

  • Found at lower as well as at higher elevations, where rain fall is sufficient.
  • Soil is shallow, steep, stony and infertile for crop production.
  • Good for Timber and other trees which provide fuel.

9. Peaty and Marshy Soils

  • Mostly found in Kerala, Sunderbans of West Bengal, Coastal regions of Orissa.
  • Vegetation growing in wet places dies, its slow decomposition over hundreds of years form layers of marshy and peaty soils.
  • Black coloured, acidic soil and fertile for paddy/rice crops.

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