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Geography Notes - Part-1

Geography Notes

Geography Notes - Part-1

Acid precipitation (Acid Rainfall):
is now regarded as a serious problem in some European and Asian countries, the main cause and source of which is emissions of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides from thermal power plants and burning of fossil fuels. These oxides dissolve in atmospheric water vapour and fall back on earth as acid rainfall. Acid rainfall can cause destruction of crops and trees; destruction of fish; and damage to buildings.

Soil management and production of field crops is known as Agronomy.

Aleurone layer:
is that part of the grain in cereals where much of the protein lies.

Alluvial soil:
is the richest and most fertile soil of India spread over large areas in northern plains of India.

Arakan Yoma:
is the extension of the Himalayas located in Myanmar.

Asthamudi Lake:
is located in Kerala State.

in Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh, is known for its wealth of Manganese.

Barhara (Tribes):
The Barhara tribes mentioned in the Mahabharata who had settled in the north-western regions of India, are associated with—
(1) Ambashthas (a mixed Mongolian Aryan race);
(2) Gandharas (Afghans);
(3) Pavas.

Bhabhar region:
in south of the Shivaliks, is an example of Piedmont situation i.e., belonging to or related to the foot of a mountain.

Bushmen (Tribes):
They live in the Kalahari desert. They are probably the descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Africa. They rank among the most uncivilized and backward peoples in the world. Their food consists almost entirely of meat, often raw or decomposed, and in times of scarcity they will eat insects, snakes etc.

Karnataka is the largest producer of cardamom. India is the largest exporter of cardamom in the world.

Warm, dry wind experienced along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and the U.S.A.

is a graphical representation of the differentiation between various types of climate. It reveals the type of climate at a glance—a climograph showing wet bulb temperatures and relative humidities  which are  high, for instance, depicts a constantly hot damp climate.

Coastline of India (Length):
The length of India’s coastline is 7,516 km and its territory includes 1,256 islands. Tamil Nadu has the longest coastline in India.

Cosmic year:
One cosmic year is equal to the time taken by the sun to complete one orbit around the galactic centre.
Cotopaxi: is the highest volcano in the world. It is situated in Ecuador.

Date Line, International:
International Date Line is an internationally agreed line drawn parallel to the 180° meridian. It divides the Pacific Ocean into two equal parts. A crossing of the International Date Line entails repeating one day when travelling westwards.

Detroit of India:
Pithampur in Madhya Pradesh, where a large number of automobile industries have been set up, is called the “Detroit of India”.

Doldrums Belt:
is a zone of the tropics where the calm lasting for some weeks prevails, broken at times by erratic squalls and baffling winds. It is an area of low pressure. The wind system in the Equatorial areas is known as doldrums.

Dust Devil:
is a dusty whirlwind normally a few feet in diameter and about 100 feet tall, sometimes also wider and higher.

Earth mass:
The mass of the earth is about 81 times that of the moon.

Earth’s core:
is mainly composed of iron and nickel. Lithosphere is the innermost layer of the earth.

El Nino:
is the weather phenomenon brewing in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the largest climate event of the 20th century setting off more global disasters than ever before. El Nino is warming of the waters off Equatorial South America which causes climate abnormalities around the world. The impact can be flooding drought in California, Brazil, Africa and Australia, severe storms in the Central Pacific and a decline in hurricanes hitting the south-eastern United States.

This type of weathering is common both in the cold as well as in the hot climate regions.

Fertilizer plant, First:
The first fertilizer plant in India was set up at Sindri (Bihar).

Garo (Tribes):
Garos are the tribe of Garo Hills in Meghalaya.

Glacial lake—example in India:
Dal Lake in Srinagar.

Great Circle:
A circle on the earth’s surface whose plane passes through its centre, and bisects it into two hemispheres. Two opposing meridians together form a Great Circle. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth’s surface is the arc of the Great Circle which passes through them. 0° latitude forms a Great Circle. (The latitude or longitude 75°W should be combined with 75°E to obtain the Great Circle).

Horse Latitudes:
Sub-tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure over the oceans situated in both hemispheres. These are called Belts of Calm between regions of the Trade Winds and Westerlies of higher latitudes.

means cultivation of the plants without use of soil.

Hyetology: is the study of ra

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